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托福写作常犯的10个错误
点击率:1752  作者:  来源:  时间:2012-5-4

 

   1、不一致(Disagreements)

  所谓不一致不光指主谓不一致,它还包括了数的不一致、时态不一致及代词不一致等。

  例1. When one have money he can do what he want to.

  人一旦有了钱,他就能想干什么就干什么。

  剖析:one是单数第三人称,因而本句的have应改为has; 同理,want应改为wants。本句是典型的主谓不一致。

  改为:Once one has money he can do what he wants (to do)

  2、修饰语错位(Misplaced Modifiers)

  英语与汉语不同,同一个修饰语置于句子不同的位置,句子的含义可能引起变化。对于这一点中国学生往往没有引起足够的重视,因而造成了不必要的误解。

  例1 I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus.

  剖析:better位置不当,应置于句末。

  3、句子不完整(Sentence Fragments)

  在口语中,交际双方可借助手势语气上下文等,不完整的句子完全可以被理解。可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,笔者又想加些补充说明时发生。

  例1There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV, radio, newspaper and so on.

  剖析:本句后半部分“for example by TV radio newspaper and so on 。”不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不连贯的词语,不能独立成句。

  改为:There are many ways to know society, for example, by TV, radio, and newspaper.

  4、悬垂修饰语(Dangling Modifiers)

  所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清。

  例如:At the age of ten, my grandfather died. 这句中“at the age of ten”只点出十岁时,但没有说明“ 谁”十岁时。按一般推理不可能是my grandfather,如果我们把这个悬垂修饰语改明确一点,全句就不那么费解了。

  改为:When I was ten, my grandfather died.

  例1To do well in college good grades are essential.

  剖析:句中不定式短语 “to do well in college” 的逻辑主语不清楚。

  改为:To do well in college a student needs good grades.

  5、词性误用(Misuse of Parts of Speech)

  “词性误用”常表现为:介词当动词用;形容词当副词用;名词当动词用等。

  例1None can negative the importance of money.

  剖析:negative 系形容词,误作动词。

  改为:None can deny the importance of money.

  6、指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns)

  指代不清主要讲的是代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。试看下面这一句:

  Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.

  玛丽和我姐姐很要好,因为她要她做她的伴娘。

  读完上面这一句话,读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚,谁将当伴娘。如果我们把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确,意思就一目了然了。这个句子可改为:

  Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.

  例1And we can also know the society by serving it yourself.

  剖析:句中人称代词we 和反身代词yourself指代不一致。

  改为:We can also know society by serving it ourselves.

  7、不间断句子(Run-on Sentences)

  什么叫run-on sentence?请看下面的例句。

  例1. There are many ways we get to know the outside world.

  剖析:这个句子包含了两层完整的意思:“There are many ways。” 以及“We get to know the outside world。”。简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。

  改为:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或:There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world.

  8、措词毛病(Troubles in Diction)

  Diction 是指在特定的句子中如何适当地选用词语的问题,囿于教学时间紧迫,教师平时在这方面花的时间往往极其有限,影响了学生在写作中没有养成良好的推敲,斟酌的习惯。他们往往随心所欲,拿来就用。所以作文中用词不当的错误比比皆是。

  例1The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution.

  农业方面化学物质使用的不断增加也造成了污染。

  剖析:显然,考生把obstacles“障碍”,“障碍物”误作substance“物质”了。另外“the increasing use (不断增加的使用)” 应改为“abusive use (滥用)”。

  改为:The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution.

  9、累赘(Redundancy)

  言以简洁为贵。写句子没有一个多余的词;写段落没有一个无必要的句子。能用单词的不用词组;能用词组的不用从句或句子。如:In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him.

  本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同谓语从句,我们按照上述“能用词组的不用从句”

  可以改为:In spite of his laziness, I like him.

  例1For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.

  剖析:整个句子可以大大简化。

  改为:Diligent caring people use money only to buy what they need.

  10、不连贯(Incoherence)

  不连贯是指一个句子前言不对后语,或是结构上不畅通。这也是考生常犯的毛病。

  例1. The fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth.

  剖析:The fresh water 与逗号后的it 不连贯。It things 在数方面不一致。

  改为:Fresh water is the most important thing in the world.

 

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